Tuesday, 7 August 2012

29/1/2012 late night: Mu'tah, Jordan

.dropped by Mu'tah
only few hours here
to visit maqam, and sleep,yeay

**visit Mu'tah before arrived at Petra, just after the day after Dead Sea-day and Mount Nebo (entries before)

very COLD here
at night reach -1c
and after we leave Mu'tah that morning, my friend said in Mu'tah was snowing..OMG...terlepas nak main salji!

Mu'tah (Arabic: مؤتة) is a town in Karak Governorate in Jordan. It is known for the Battle of Mu'tah in 629 AD, the first military engagement between the Arab muslims and the Byzantine Empire. Mu'tah University is located in the city.

I found Malay language here!!

Mosque area


Mobilization of the armies

According to later Muslim historians, Muhammad dispatched 3,000 of his troops to the area in Jumada al-awwal of the year 8 A.H., i.e., A.D. 629, for a quick expedition to attack and punish the tribes. The army was led by Zayd ibn Haritha; the second-in-command was Jafar ibn Abi Talib and the third-in-command was Abdullah ibn Rawahah.[7]

The leader of the Ghassanids is said to have received word of the expedition and prepared his forces; he also sent to the Byzantines for aid. Muslim historians report that the Byzantine emperor Heraclius gathered an army and hurried to the aid of his Arab allies. Other sources say that the leader was the emperor's brother, Theodorus.[citation needed] The combined force of Roman soldiers and Arab allies is usually reported to be approximately 200,000.

When the Muslim troops arrived at the area to the east of Jordan and learnt of the size of the Byzantine army, they wanted to wait and send for reinforcements from Medina. Abdullah ibn Rawahah scolded them for their timidity, so they continued marching towards the waiting army.

The battle

The Muslims engaged the Byzantines at their camp by the village of Musharif and then withdrew towards Mu'tah. It was here that the two armies fought. Some Muslim sources report that the battle was fought in a valley between two heights, which negated the Byzantines their numerical superiority. During the battle, all three Muslim leaders fell one after the other as they took command of the force: first, Zayd ibn Haritha, then Jafar ibn Abi Talib, then Abdullah ibn Rawahah. Al-Bukhari reported that there were fifty stab wounds in Jafar's body, none of them in the back. After the death of the latter, some of the Muslim soldiers began to rout. Thabit ibn Al-Arqam, seeing the desperate state of the Muslim forces, took up the banner and rallied his comrades, and managed to save the army from complete destruction. After the battle the troops asked Thabit ibn Al-Arqam to assume command; however, he declined and asked Khalid ibn al-Walid to take the lead.[7]

Khalid ibn Al-Walid reported that the fighting was so intense that he used nine swords which broke in the battle. Khalid, seeing that the situation was hopeless, prepared to withdraw. He continued to engage the Byzantines in skirmishes, but avoided pitched battle. One night he completely changed his troop positions and brought forth a rearguard that he had equipped with new banners; all this was intended to give the impression that reinforcements had arrived from Medina. He also ordered his cavalry to retreat behind a hill during the night, hiding their movements, and then to return during daytime when the battle resumed, raising as much dust as they could. This also was intended to create the impression that further reinforcements were arriving. The Byzantines believed in the fictitious reinforcements and withdrew, thus allowing the Muslim force to safely retreat to Medina.

Military commentators on the battle have often praised the skirmishing tactics of Khalid ibn al-Walid.[10][7]
Medina, the Muslim capital.

It is reported that when the Muslim force arrived at Medina, they were berated for apparently withdrawing and accused of fleeing. Salamah ibn Hisham is reported to have prayed at home rather than going to the mosque to avoid having to explain himself. Muhammad ordered them to stop, saying that they would return to fight the Byzantines again and bestowed upon Khalid the title of 'Saifullah' meaning 'The Sword of Allah'.

Today, Muslims who fell at the battle are considered martyrs (shahid). Some have claimed that this battle, far from being a defeat, was a strategic success; the Muslims had challenged the Byzantines and had made their presence felt amongst the Arab Bedouin tribes in the region. A mausoleum was later built at Mu'tah over their grave.[12]

The event is referenced in many Sunni Hadith collections. The Sahih al-Bukhari hadith collection mentions that 9 swords of Khalid ibn Walid were broken:
“ Narrated Khalid bin Al-Walid:

On the day of Mu'tah, nine swords were broken in my hand and only a Yemenite sword of mine remained in my hand.Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:565

It also mentions that Jafar should take over as commander if Zaid ibn Haritha was killed:
“ 'Abdullah bin 'Umar said, "Allah's Apostle appointed Zaid bin Haritha as the commander of the army during the Ghazwa of Mu'tah and said, "If Zaid is martyred, Ja'far should take over his position, and if Ja'far is martyred, 'Abdullah bin Rawaha should take over his position.' " 'Abdulla-h bin 'Umar further said, "I was present amongst them in that battle and we searched for Ja'far bin Abi Talib and found his body amongst the bodies of the martyred ones, and found over ninety wounds over his body, caused by stabs or shots (of arrows). Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:565 ”

The event is also referenced in the Abu Dawud hadith collection as follows:
“ My foster-father said to me - he was one of Banu Murrah ibn Awf, and he was present in that battle, the battle of Mu'tah: By Allah, as if I am seeing Ja'far who jumped from his reddish horse and hamstrung it; he then fought with the people until he was killed.Sunnan Abu Dawud, 14:2567

**kami lawat kat tempat perang tu, kawasan tu wangi sbb ramai syuhada' yg dikebumikan disitu
*tempat maQam2 ni pewangi-kasturi yg dibawa dari India

Allahuakbar...mereka da selamat syahid
dan dua nikmat yg paling nikmat atas dunia adalah: SYAHID & KHUSYUK dalam SOLAT

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