Sunday, 5 September 2010

HIV, AIDS ( Statistik sehingga 2008 ) dan Jenayah Zina

assalamualaikum semua..hari ni, terjumpa satu berita. Bolehlah tahan gempaknya~

JERUSALEM (AFP) - – Israeli researchers have developed a new treatment for HIV that kills human cells infected with the virus and could lead to a breakthrough in treating AIDS, the Haaretz newspaper said on Friday.
Whereas current treatments focus on inhibiting the replication of the HIV virus, the new treatment destroys infected cells without damaging healthy ones, the newspaper said.
The process makes use of peptides, or short protein segments, which vastly increase the replications of the virus once it enters a cell, causing the cell's self-destruction, Haaretz said, citing one of the researchers.
"The usual medications kill the virus that has entered the body during infection and the (peptide) treatment allows cells infected with the genetic load of the virus to be killed," Abraham Loyter, who carried out the study, was quoted as saying.
The study was published in the peer-reviewed British journal "AIDS Research and Therapy" in August and was co-authored by Loyter, Aviad Levin, Zvi Hayouka, and Assaf Friedler.
The researchers could not be reached on Friday, a day off in Israel.
They have registered an Israeli patent but the treatment must still be tested on animals and humans, Haaretz said.
Around 33.4 million people suffer from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes AIDS. The vast majority, more than 30 million, live in low and middle-income countries, according to the World Health Organisation

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for the 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus' and AIDS stands for the 'Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome'. AIDS is a serious condition in which the body's defences against some illnesses are broken down. This means that people with AIDS can get many different kinds of diseases which a healthy person's body would normally fight off quite easily.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[1][2][3]opportunistic infections and tumors. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk.[4][5] This transmission can involve anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids. This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to
AIDS is now a pandemic.[6] In 2007, it was estimated that 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children.[7] Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa.[7]
Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.[8][9] AIDS was first recognized by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s.[10]
Although treatments for AIDS and HIV can slow the course of the disease, there is currently no known cure or vaccine. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but these drugs are expensive and routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries.[11] Due to the difficulty in treating HIV infection, preventing infection is a key aim in controlling the AIDS pandemic, with health organizations promoting safe sex and needle-exchange programmes in attempts to slow the spread of the virus.


Main symptoms of AIDS.
X-ray of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). There is increased white (opacity) in the lower lungs on both sides, characteristic of PCP
The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages.
Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS.[12] These infections affect nearly every organ system.
People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas. Additionally, people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss.The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives.

Pulmonary infections

Pneumocystis pneumonia (originally known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and still abbreviated as PCP, which now stands for Pneumocystis pneumonia) is relatively rare in healthy, immunocompetent people, but common among HIV-infected individuals. It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii.
Before the advent of effective diagnosis, treatment and routine prophylaxis in Western countries, it was a common immediate cause of death. In developing countries, it is still one of the first indications of AIDS in untested individuals, although it does not generally occur unless the CD4 count is less than 200 cells per µL of blood.[15]
Tuberculosis (TB) is unique among infections associated with HIV because it is transmissible to immunocompetent people via the respiratory route, is not easily treatable once identified,Multidrug resistance is a serious problem. Tuberculosis with HIV co-infection (TB/HIV) is a major world health problem according to the World Health Organization: in 2007, 456,000 deaths among incident TB cases were HIV-positive, a third of all TB deaths and nearly a quarter of the estimated 2 million HIV deaths in that year.
Even though its incidence has declined because of the use of directly observed therapy and other improved practices in Western countries, this is not the case in developing countries where HIV is most prevalent. In early-stage HIV infection (CD4 count >300 cells per µL), TB typically presents as a pulmonary disease. In advanced HIV infection, TB often presents atypically with extrapulmonary (systemic) disease a common feature. Symptoms are usually constitutional and are not localized to one particular site, often affecting bone marrow, bone, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, liver, regional lymph nodes, and the central nervous system.[18]

Gastrointestinal infections

Esophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the lower end of the esophagus (gullet or swallowing tube leading to the stomach). In HIV infected individuals, this is normally due to fungal (candidiasis) or viral (herpes simplex-1 or cytomegalovirus) infections. In rare cases, it could be due to mycobacteria.[19]
Unexplained chronic diarrhea in HIV infection is due to many possible causes, including common bacterial (Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Campylobacter) and parasitic infections; and uncommon opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and viruses,[20] astrovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus and cytomegalovirus, (the latter as a course of colitis).
In some cases, diarrhea may be a side effect of several drugs used to treat HIV, or it may simply accompany HIV infection, particularly during primary HIV infection. It may also be a side effect of antibiotics used to treat bacterial causes of diarrhea (common for Clostridium difficile). In the later stages of HIV infection, diarrhea is thought to be a reflection of changes in the way the intestinal tract absorbs nutrients, and may be an important component of HIV-related wasting.

Neurological and psychiatric involvement

HIV infection may lead to a variety of neuropsychiatric sequelae, either by infection of the now susceptible nervous system by organisms, or as a direct consequence of the illness itself.[22]
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii; it usually infects the brain, causing toxoplasma encephalitis, but it can also infect and cause disease in the eyes and lungs.[23] Cryptococcal meningitis is an infection of the meninx (the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord) by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It can cause fevers, headache, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Patients may also develop seizures and confusion; left untreated, it can be lethal.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease, in which the gradual destruction of the myelin sheath covering the axons of nerve cells impairs the transmission of nerve impulses. It is caused by a virus called JC virus which occurs in 70% of the population in latent form, causing disease only when the immune system has been severely weakened, as is the case for AIDS patients. It progresses rapidly, usually causing death within months of diagnosis.
AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of HIV infected brain macrophages and microglia. These cells are productively infected by HIV and secrete neurotoxins of both host and viral origin.[25] Specific neurological impairments are manifested by cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities that occur after years of HIV infection and are associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads.
Prevalence is 10–20% in Western countries[26] but only 1–2% of HIV infections in India.[27][28]manic episode associated with true bipolar disorder. Unlike the latter condition, it may have a more chronic course. This syndrome is less often seen with the advent of multi-drug therapy. This difference is possibly due to the HIV subtype in India. AIDS related mania is sometimes seen in patients with advanced HIV illness; it presents with more irritability and cognitive impairment and less euphoria than a

Tumors and malignancies

Patients with HIV infection have substantially increased incidence of several cancers. This is primarily due to co-infection with an oncogenic DNA virus, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (also known as human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[29][30]
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common tumor in HIV-infected patients. The appearance of this tumor in young homosexual men in 1981 was one of the first signals of the AIDS epidemic. Caused by a gammaherpes virus called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), it often appears as purplish nodules on the skin, but can affect other organs, especially the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. High-grade B cell lymphomas such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Burkitt's-like lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and primary central nervous system lymphoma present more often in HIV-infected patients. These particular cancers often foreshadow a poor prognosis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or KSHV cause many of these lymphomas. In HIV-infected patients, lymphoma often arises in extranodal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract.[31] When they occur in an HIV-infected patient, KS and aggressive B cell lymphomas confer a diagnosis of AIDS.
Invasive cervical cancer in HIV-infected women is also considered AIDS-defining. It is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).[32]
In addition to the AIDS-defining tumors listed above, HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of certain other tumors, notably Hodgkin's disease, anal and rectal carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, head and neck cancers, and lung cancer. Some of these are causes by viruses, such as Hodgkin's disease (EBV), anal/rectal cancers (HPV), head and neck cancers (HPV), and hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatitis B or C). Other contributing factors include exposure to carcinogens (cigarette smoke for lung cancer), or living for years with subtle immune defects.
Interestingly, the incidence of many common tumors, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, does not increase in HIV-infected patients. In areas where HAART is extensively used to treat AIDS, the incidence of many AIDS-related malignancies has decreased, but at the same time malignant cancers overall have become the most common cause of death of HIV-infected patients.[33] In recent years, an increasing proportion of these deaths have been from non-AIDS-defining cancers.

Other infections

AIDS patients often develop opportunistic infections that present with non-specific symptoms, especially low-grade fevers and weight loss. These include opportunistic infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV can cause colitis, as described above, and CMV retinitis can cause blindness.
Penicilliosis due to Penicillium marneffei is now the third most common opportunistic infection (after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive individuals within the endemic area of Southeast Asia.[34]
An infection that often goes unrecognized in AIDS patients is Parvovirus B19. Its main consequence is anemia, which is difficult to distinguish from the effects of antiretroviral drugs used to treat AIDS itself.


AIDS is the ultimate clinical consequence of infection with HIV. HIV is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital organs of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells (a subset of T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. It directly and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells.[36]
Once HIV has killed so many CD4+ T cells that there are fewer than 200 of these cells per microliter (µL) of blood, cellular immunity is lost. Acute HIV infection progresses over time to clinical latent HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later to AIDS, which is identified either on the basis of the amount of CD4+ T cells remaining in the blood, and/or the presence of certain infections, as noted above.[37]
In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.[38] However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years.
Many factors affect the rate of progression. These include factors that influence the body's ability to defend against HIV such as the infected person's general immune function.[39][40] Older people have weaker immune systems, and therefore have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people.
Poor access to health care and the existence of coexisting infections such as tuberculosis also may predispose people to faster disease progressionThe infected person's genetic inheritance plays an important role and some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV. An example of this is people with the homozygous CCR5-Δ32 variation are resistant to infection with certain strains of HIVHIV is genetically variable and exists as different strains, which cause different rates of clinical disease progression.

Sexual transmission

Sexual transmission occurs with the contact between sexual secretions of one person with the rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes of another. Unprotected sexual acts are riskier for the receptive partner than for the insertive partner, and the risk for transmitting HIV through unprotected anal intercourse is greater than the risk from vaginal intercourse or oral sex.
However, oral sex is not entirely safe, as HIV can be transmitted through both insertive and receptive oral sex. Sexual assault greatly increases the risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely employed and physical trauma to the vagina or rectum occurs frequently, facilitating the transmission of HIV.
Other sexually transmitted infections (STI) increase the risk of HIV transmission and infection, because they cause the disruption of the normal epithelial barrier by genital ulceration and/or microulceration; and by accumulation of pools of HIV-susceptible or HIV-infected cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) in semen and vaginal secretions. Epidemiological studies from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and North America suggest that genital ulcers, such as those caused by syphilis and/or chancroid, increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV by about fourfold. There is also a significant although lesser increase in risk from STIs such as gonorrhea, chlamydiatrichomoniasis, which all cause local accumulations of lymphocytes and macrophages. and
Transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of the uninfected partner. Infectivity seems to vary during the course of illness and is not constant between individuals. An undetectable plasma viral load does not necessarily indicate a low viral load in the seminal liquid or genital secretions.
However, each 10-fold increase in the level of HIV in the blood is associated with an 81% increased rate of HIV transmission. Women are more susceptible to HIV-1 infection due to hormonal changes, vaginal microbial ecology and physiology, and a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.
People who have been infected with one strain of HIV can still be infected later on in their lives by other, more virulent strains.
Infection is unlikely in a single encounter. High rates of infection have been linked to a pattern of overlapping long-term sexual relationships. This allows the virus to quickly spread to multiple partners who in turn infect their partners. A pattern of serial monogamy or occasional casual encounters is associated with lower rates of infection.
HIV spreads readily through heterosexual sex in Africa, but less so elsewhere. One possibility being researched is that schistosomiasis, which affects up to 50% of women in parts of Africa, damages the lining of the vagina.

Exposure to blood-borne pathogens

This transmission route is particularly relevant to intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusions and blood products. Sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood represents a major risk for infection with HIV.
Needle sharing is the cause of one third of all new HIV-infections in North America, China, and Eastern Europe. The risk of being infected with HIV from a single prick with a needle that has been used on an HIV-infected person is thought to be about 1 in 150 . Post-exposure prophylaxis with anti-HIV drugs can further reduce this risk.
This route can also affect people who give and receive tattoos and piercings. Universal precautions are frequently not followed in both sub-Saharan Africa and much of Asia because of both a shortage of supplies and inadequate training.
The WHO estimates that approximately 2.5% of all HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are transmitted through unsafe healthcare injections. Because of this, the United Nations General Assembly has urged the nations of the world to implement precautions to prevent HIV transmission by health workers.
The risk of transmitting HIV to blood transfusion recipients is extremely low in developed countries where improved donor selection and HIV screening is performed. However, according to the WHO, the overwhelming majority of the world's population does not have access to safe blood and between 5% and 10% of the world's HIV infections come from transfusion of infected blood and blood products.

Perinatal transmission

The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero during the last weeks of pregnancy and at childbirth. In the absence of treatment, the transmission rate between a mother and her child during pregnancy, labor and delivery is 25%.
However, when the mother takes antiretroviral therapy and gives birth by caesarean section, the rate of transmission is just 1%. The risk of infection is influenced by the viral load of the mother at birth, with the higher the viral load, the higher the risk. Breastfeeding also increases the risk of transmission by about 4 %.


A number of misconceptions have arisen surrounding HIV/AIDS. Three of the most common are that AIDS can spread through casual contact, that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure AIDS, and that HIV can infect only homosexual men and drug users. Other misconceptions are that any act of anal intercourse between gay men can lead to AIDS infection, and that open discussion of homosexuality and HIV in schools will lead to increased rates of homosexuality and AIDS

TATKALA seluruh dunia menyambut dan meraikan usaha mencegah penyebaran virus HIV, ramai yang tidak menyedari bahawa kongkongan hidup yang dilalui oleh pesakit AIDS lebih pedih daripada penyakit yang dideritai.
Jika beban AIDS dapat ditangani dengan memanjangkan jangka hayat hidup seseorang pembawa virus HIV, tohmahan dan cemuhan dari mulut-mulut nista sukar dibendung tanpa pengamatan pendidikan seks, AIDS dan program kesedaran dengan komuniti luar.
"Masa dulu, sekitar awal tahun 1980-an, pesakit yang didiagnosis dengan virus HIV bimbang terhadap saat-saat terakhir hidup mereka. Kini, dengan adanya kemajuan teknologi perubatan dan penemuan ubat-ubat yang mujarab, senario ini telah berubah," ujar Dr. Christopher Lee Kwok Choong, Ketua Jabatan dan Pakar Perunding Kanan (Penyakit Berjangkit), Jabatan Perubatan, Hospital Sungai Buloh, Selangor ketika ditemui Kosmo!.
Dalam kebanyakan kes, mangsa AIDS mampu hidup lebih lama. Jika sebelum ini, jangka hayat mereka antara enam bulan hingga setahun, kini jangka hayat pesakit AIDS melebihi 10 tahun. Ada juga yang melepasi aras 15 tahun dan seterusnya.
Bagi penyakit berjangkit ini, rawatan sahaja tidak mencukupi. Pemantauan, kaunseling dan preskripsi ubat amat penting bagi memastikan pesakit AIDS tidak tewas kepada virus HIV. Ada kalanya, paras virus HIV dalam badan tubuh meningkat secara mendadak jika pesakit terlupa mengambil ubat yang hanya berfungsi selama 12 jam.
"Jika bacaan CD4 jatuh di bawah lingkungan 200, maka tindak balas yang akan dilalui oleh pesakit amatlah dahsyat dan besar kemungkinan boleh membawa maut," ujarnya lagi yang menambah pesakit yang masih lagi di bawah pengawasan pasukan perubatan, perlu sentiasa berwaspada.
MAJORITI mereka yang hidup dengan AIDS dan HIV optimistik dengan rawatan yang sedang dan akan ditawarkan.

Menurutnya, tahun 1987 dan 1992 merupakan detik bersejarah dalam pembangunan penyelidikan penyakit AIDS.
Katanya, ia membawa kepada pengeluaran lesen ubat rawatan AZT yang pertama.
Tambahnya, pada hari ini angkanya berlipat ganda dengan pencapaian yang boleh dibanggakan.
Selain itu, katanya, sebiji ubat tidak mungkin dapat merawat secara berkesan, namun dengan gabungan dan formula perubatan yang dicadangkan oleh para saintis, rawatan dan penjagaan kesihatan pesakit AIDS bertambah baik.
"Walaupun preskripsi ubat generasi pertama masih lagi digunakan dan ditawarkan pada harga berpatutan, namun formula ubat terbaru mendapat sambutan lebih memberangsangkan.
"Terpulang kepada jenis rejimen ubat-ubatan yang disyorkan oleh doktor, berdasarkan kepada bacaan CD4 (paras dan tahap kesihatan), pesakit boleh mengambil sama ada tiga biji atau dua biji sehari," kata Dr. Christopher.
Sel utama yang diserang HIV ialah T-Cell atau sel CD4. Sebarang gangguan pada sel ini menyebabkan kerosakan dan kesan buruk pada sistem imunisasi.
Menurutnya, majoriti mereka yang hidup dengan AIDS dan HIV cukup optimistik dengan rawatan yang sedang dan akan ditawarkan pada masa akan datang.
Kajian Antarabangsa Rawatan AIDS untuk Hidup (ATLIS) juga mendedahkan, 24 peratus daripada 100 responden di Malaysia telah menukar preskripsi ubat sebanyak sekali atau lebih akibat kesan sampingan. Kira-kira 32 peratus lagi gagal memberi hasil yang diingini.

Male Female TOTAL Male Female TOTAL Male Female TOTAL
1986 3 0 3 1 0 1 1 0 1
1987 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
1988 7 2 9 2 0 2 2 0 2
1989 197 3 200 2 0 2 1 0 1
1990 769 9 778 18 0 18 10 0 10
1991 1741 53 1794 58 2 60 10 9 19
1992 2443 69 2512 70 3 73 44 2 46
1993 2441 66 2507 64 7 71 50 5 55
1994 3289 104 3393 98 7 105 74 6 80
1995 4037 161 4198 218 15 233 150 15 165
1996 4406 191 4597 327 20 347 259 12 271
1997 3727 197 3924 538 30 568 449 24 473
1998 4327 297 4624 818 57 875 655 34 689
1999 4312 380 4692 1114 86 1200 824 50 874
2000 4626 481 5107 1071 97 1168 825 57 882
2001 5472 466 5938 1188 114 1302 900 75 975
2002 6349 629 6978 1068 125 1193 823 64 887
2003 6083 673 6754 939 137 1076 633 67 700
2004 5731 696 6427 1002 146 1148 951 114 1065
2005 5383 737 6120 1044 177 1221 882 102 984
2006 4955 875 5830 1620 222 1842 896 80 976
2007 3804 745 4549 937 193 1130 1048 131 1179
2008 2988 704 3692 795 146 941 786 114 900
TOTAL 77,092 7,538 84,630 12,992 1,548 14,576 10,273 961 11,234

(From 1986 Until DECEMBER 2007)

  Factor Classification HIV Infection AIDS Cases
Sex / Gender

74,104 12,197
6,834 1,438
80,938 13,635
Age Groups

< 2 years
232 66
2 - 12 years
532 132
13 - 19 years
1,140 232
20 - 29 years
27,955 2,649
30 - 39 years
34,770 5,945
40 - 49 years
12,580 3,279
> 50 years
2,895 1,177
No Data
834 155
80,938 13,635
Ethnic Groups

58,267 7,986
11,886 3,656
6,532 1,068
Bumiputra Sarawak
338 166
Bumiputra Sabah
432 159
39 0
Others in Peninsular
528 131
2,722 456
No Information
194 13
80,938 13,635
Transmission Based On
Risk Factor

58,135 7,582
Needle prick
0 0
Blood receiver
29 19
Organ receiver
3 3
1,472 421
13,038 4,030
Mother to child (vertical)
692 175
No Information
7,569 1,405
80,938 13,635
Sector / Occupation

14,403 3,775
Government staff
548 158
205 48
Uniformed bodies
647 138
3,098 389
Factory worker / Industry
3,830 606
Private sector staff
2,796 831
Sex worker
482 58
2,438 497
Long distance driver
1,955 343
25,866 3,674
Odd Jobs
24,670 3,118
80,938 13,635

Rupa-rupanya begini....

The age of consent differs between countries. In most states of the U.S, for instance, it ranges between 16 and 18. In the UK and India it's 16. In Spain, it's 13 while in some Muslim countries, sex is illegal unless you're married. Have a look at our age of consent page to find out exactly what it is where you live.
So why do countries have a legal age for having sex? Because this is the age when the government believes young people are mature enough to handle the responsibilities that come with having sex. All too often people think they are ready when they’re not. Age of consent laws are also designed to prevent older people from taking advantage of children and young teenagers who may not understand the consequences of having sex, or even what sex is.


Ialah persetubuhan yang dilakukan oleh seorang lelaki dengan seorang perempuan tanpa nikah yang sah mengikut hukum syarak (bukan pasangan suami isteri) dan kedua-duanya orang yang mukallaf, dan persetubuhan itu tidak termasuk dalam takrif (persetubuhan yang meragukan).

Jika seorang lelaki melakukan persetubuhan dengan seorang perempuan, dan lelaki itu menyangka bahawa perempuan yang disetubuhinya itu ialah isterinya, sedangkan perempuan itu bukan isterinya atau lelaki tadi menyangka bahawa perkahwinannya dengan perempuan yang disetubuhinya itu sah mengikut hukum syarak, sedangkan sebenarnya perkahwinan mereka itu tidak sah, maka dalam kes ini kedua-dua orang itu tidak boleh didakwa dibawah kes zina dan tidak boleh dikenakan hukuman hudud, kerana persetubuhan mereka itu adalah termasuk dalam wati’ subhah iaitu persetubuhan yang meragukan.

Mengikut peruntukan hukuman syarak yang disebutkan di dalam Al-Qur’an dan Al-Hadith yang dikuatkuasakan dalam undang-undang Qanun Jinayah Syar’iyyah bahawa orang yang melakukan perzinaan itu apabila sabit kesalahan di dalam mahkamah wajib dikenakan hukuman hudud, iaitu disebat sebanyak 100 kali sebat. Sebagaimana Firman Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala yang bermaksud :

“Perempuan yang berzina dan lelaki yang berzina, hendaklah kamu sebat tiap-tiap seorang dari kedua-duanya 100 kali sebat, dan janganlah kamu dipengaruhi oleh perasaan belas kasihan terhadap keduanya dalam menjalankan hukum Agama Allah, jika benar kamu beriman kepada Allah dan hari Akhirat, dan hendaklah disaksikan hukuman siksa yang dikenakan kepada mereka itu oleh sekumpulan dari orang-orang yang beriman”. (Surah An- Nur ayat 2)




Iaitu lelaki atau perempuan yang telah pernah melakukan persetubuhan yang halal (sudah pernah berkahwin)


Iaitu lelaki atau perempuan yang belum pernah melakukan persetubuhan yang halal (belum pernah berkahwin).

Perzinaan yang boleh dituduh dan didakwa dibawah kesalahan Zina Muhsan ialah lelaki atau perempuan yang telah baligh, berakal, merdeka dan telah pernah berkahwin, iaitu telah merasai kenikmatan persetubuhan secara halal.

Penzinaan yang tidak cukup syarat-syarat yang disebutkan bagi perkara diatas tidak boleh dituduh dan didakwa dibawah kesalahan zina muhsan, tetapi mereka itu boleh dituduh dan didakwa dibawah kesalahan zina bukan muhsan mengikut syarat-syarat yang dikehendaki oleh hukum syarak.


Seseorang yang melakukan zina Muhsan, sama ada lelaki atau perempuan wajib dikenakan keatas mereka hukuman had (rejam) iaitu dibaling dengan batu yang sederhana besarnya hingga mati. Sebagaimana yang dinyatakan di dalam kitab I’anah Al- Thalibin juzuk 2 muka surat 146 yang bermaksud :

”Lelaki atau perempuan yang melakukan zina muhsan wajib dikenakan keatas mereka had (rejam), iaitu dibaling dengan batu yang sederhana besarnya sehingga mati”.

Seseorang yang melakukan zina bukan muhsan sama ada lelaki atau perempuan wajib dikenakan ke atas mereka hukuman sebat 100 kali sebat dan buang negeri selama setahun sebagaimana terdapat di dalam kitab Kifayatul Ahyar juzuk 2 muka surat 178 yang bermaksud :

”Lelaki atau perempuan yang melakukan zina bukan muhsin wajib dikenakan keatas mereka sebat 100 kali sebat dan buang negeri selama setahun”.


Perempuan-perempuan yang dirogol atau diperkosa oleh lelaki yang melakukan perzinaan dan telah disabit dengan bukti –bukti yang diperlukan oleh syarak dan tidak menimbulkan sebarang keraguan dipihak hakim bahawa perempuan itu dirogol dan diperkosa, maka dalam kes ini perempuan itu tidak boleh dijatuhkan dan dikenakan hukuman hudud,dan ia tidak berdosa dengan sebab perzinaan itu.

Lelaki yang merogol atau memperkosa perempuan melakukan perzinaan dan telah sabit kesalahannya dengan bukti – bukti dan keterangan yang dikehendaki oleh syarak tanpa sebarang keraguan dipihak hakim, maka hakim hendaklah menjatuhkan hukuman hudud keatas lelaki yang merogol perempuan itu, iaitu wajib dijatuhkan dan dikenakan ke atas lelaki itu hukuman rejam dan sebat.

Perempuan-perempuan yang telah disabitkan oleh hakim bahawa ia adalah dirogol dan diperkosa oleh lelaki melakukan perzinaan, maka hakim hendaklah membebaskan perempuan itu dari hukuman hudud (tidak boleh direjam dan disebat) dan Allah mengampunkan dosa perempuan itu di atas perzinaan secara paksa itu.

Zina adalah haram hukumnya, dan ia termasuk dosa besar yang paling besar.
Allah swt berfirman:
“Dan janganlah kamu mendekati zina; sesungguhnya zina itu adalah suatu perbuatan yang keji dan suatu jalan yang buruk.” (QS al-Israa’: 32)
Dari Abdullah bin Mas’ud r.a, ia berkata: Saya pernah bertanya kepada Rasulullah saw, “(Ya Rasulullah), dosa apa yang paling besar?” Jawab Beliau, “Yaitu engkau mengangkat tuhan tandingan bagi Allah, padahal Dialah yang telah menciptakanmu.” Lalu saya bertanya (lagi), “Kemudian apa lagi?” Jawab Beliau, “Engkau membunuh anakmu karena khawatir ia makan denganmu.” Kemudian saya bertanya (lagi). “Lalu apa lagi?” Jawab Beliau, “Engkau berzina dengan isteri tetanggamu.” (Muttafaqun ’alaih: Fathul Bari XII: 114 No. 6811, Muslim I: 90 No. 86, ‘Aunul Ma’bud VI: 422 No. 2293 No. Tirmidzi V: 17 No. 3232).
Allah swt berfirman:
“Dan orang-orang yang tidak menyembah Tuhan yang lain beserta Allah dan tidak membunuh jiwa yang diharamkan Allah (membunuhnya) kecuali dengan (alasan) yang benar, dan tidak berzina, barang siapa yang melakukan yang demikian itu, niscaya dia mendapat (pembalasan) dosa(nya), (yakni) akan dilipat gandakan azab untuknya pada hari kiamat dan dia akan kekal dalam azab itu, dalam keadaan terhina. Kecuali orang-orang yang bertaubat, beriman dan mengerjakan amal saleh; Maka itu kejahatan mereka diganti Allah dengan kebajikan. dan adalah Allah Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyayang.” (QS Al-Furqaan: 68-70).
Dalam hadist Sumarah bin Jundab yang panjang tentang mimpi Nabi saw, Beliau saw bersabda:
“Kemudian kami berjalan dan sampai kepada suatu bangunan serupa tungku api dan di situ kedengaran suara hiruk-pikuk. Lalu kami tengok ke dalam, ternyata di situ ada beberapa laki-laki dan perempuan yang telanjang bulat. Dari bawah mereka datang kobaran api dan apabila kena nyala api itu, mereka memekik. Aku bertanya, “Siapakah orang itu” Jawabnya, “Adapun sejumlah laki-laki dan perempuan yang telanjang bulat yang berada di dalam bangunan serupa tungku api itu adalah para pezina laki-laki dan perempuan.” (Shahih: Shahihul Jami’us Shaghir no: 3462 dan Fathul Bari XII: 438 no: 7047).
Dari Ibnu Abbas r.a bahwa Rasulullah saw. bersabda, “Tidaklah seorang hamba berzina tatkala ia sebagai seorang mu’min; dan tidaklah ia mencuri, manakala tatkala ia mencuri sebagai seorang beriman; dan tidaklah ia meneguk arak ketikaia meneguknya sebagai seorang beriman; dan tidaklah ia membunuh (orang tak berdosa), manakala ia membunuh sebagai seorang beriman.”
Dalam lanjutan riwayat di atas disebutkan:
Ikrimah berkata, “Saya bertanya kepada Ibnu Abbas, ‘Bagaimana cara tercabutnya iman darinya?’ Jawab Ibnu Abbas: ‘Begini –ia mencengkeram tangan kanan pada tangan kirinya dan sebaliknya, kemudian ia melepas lagi–, lalu manakala dia bertaubat, maka iman kembali (lagi) kepadanya begini –ia mencengkeramkan tangan kanan pada tangan kirinya (lagi) dan sebaliknya-.’” (Shahih: Shahihul Jami’us Shaghir no: 7708, Fathul Bari XII: 114 no: 6809 dan Nasa’i VIII: 63). 

 situasi yang selalunya berlaku..berzina dan selepas itu berkahwin~
sepasang kekasih berzina sebelum berkahwin.....selepas mereka berkahwin adakah terhapus dosa berzina mereka yang dilakukan sebelum mereka berkahwin????

Zina adalah satu amalan keji yang tergolong dalam dosa2 besar. Oleh itu jika pasangan zina itu telah berkahwin, dosa zina tersebut tetap tidak terhapus melainkan wajiblah pasangan tersebut bertaubat dengan taubat nasuha.
Berkahwin hanya mengurangkan atau mengelakkan dari terus menambah dosa bukannya menghapuskan dosa. 

malaysian aids society

trivia- subhanallah walhamdulillah ~ no comment
minum segelas jus lobak merah setiap hari dapat menurunkan berat badan sekitar dua kilogram dalam 12 minggu. Ini kerana lobak merah kaya dengan serat dan nutrisi yang membantu membakar lapisan lemak

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Subhanallah, panjangnya... tp berguna, banyak sungguh maklumat.. anti suka sungguh buat kajian. bagus3, teruskan usaha anda.

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